Galectin-3-binding protein is a novel predictor of venous thromboembolism in systemic lupus erythematosus.
Peretz ASR., Rasmussen NS., Jacobsen S., Sjöwall C., Nielsen CT.
ObjectivesVenous (VTE) and arterial (AT) thrombosis in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are poorly explained and difficult to predict. Leptin and tumour necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) have been linked to subclinical atherosclerosis and galectin-3-binding protein (G3BP) to type I interferon activation and a pro-thrombotic environment. Thus, we explore serum G3BP, interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10), soluble CD163 (sCD163), TWEAK and leptin as predictors of VTE and AT, damage accrual, and all-cause mortality during follow-up in a Swedish SLE cohort.MethodsBaseline data were available from 162 SLE patients. VTE (deep vein thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolism), AT (myocardial infarction and/or stroke), damage accrual, and survival data were the main study outcomes and available at follow-up (median of five years). Baseline serum G3BP, IP-10, sCD163, TWEAK and leptin were measured and analysed by univariable and multivariable methods for association to the study outcomes.ResultsDuring the follow-up, 10 (6%) VTE and 13 (8%) AT events occurred. The SLICC/ACR Damage Index increased in 78 (48%) patients, and 19 (12%) patients died. In the univariable regression analysis G3BP levels were significantly associated with an increased risk of VTE (hazard ratio (HR) 1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01-1.22, p=0.03). This persisted in the adjusted multivariable analyses (HR 1.18, 95% CI: 1.05-1.33, p=0.007). The other biomarkers were not associated with AT/VTE, damage accrual, or all-cause mortality.ConclusionsOur study identifies serum G3BP as a novel predictor of VTE in SLE. Further studies are needed to understand the role of G3BP in VTE and translate this into clinical practice.