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BACKGROUND: The Prevention of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular Events of ischemic origin with teRutroban in patients with a history oF ischemic strOke or tRansient ischeMic attack (PERFORM) study is an international double-blind, randomized controlled trial designed to investigate the superiority of the specific TP receptor antagonist terutroban (30 mg/day) over aspirin (100 mg/day), in reducing cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events in patients with a recent history of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack. Here we describe the baseline characteristics of the population. METHODS AND RESULTS: Parameters recorded at baseline included vital signs, risk factors, medical history, and concomitant treatments, as well as stroke subtype, stroke-associated disability on the modified Rankin scale, and scores on scales for cognitive function and dependency. Eight hundred and two centers in 46 countries recruited a total of 19,119 patients between February 2006 and April 2008. The population is evenly distributed and is not dominated by any one country or region. The mean +/- SD age was 67.2 +/- 7.9 years, 63% were male, and 83% Caucasian; 83% had hypertension, and about half the population smoked or had quit smoking. Ninety percent of the qualifying events were ischemic stroke, 67% of which were classified as atherothrombotic or likely atherothrombotic (pure or coexisting with another cause). Modified Rankin scale scores showed slight or no disability in 83% of the population, while the scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination, Isaacs' Set Test, Zazzo's Cancellation Test, and the instrumental activities of daily living scale showed a good level of cognitive function and autonomy. CONCLUSIONS: The PERFORM study population is homogeneous in terms of demographic and disease characteristics. With 19,119 patients, the PERFORM study is powered to test the superiority of terutroban over aspirin in the secondary prevention of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events in patients with a recent history of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack.

Original publication




Journal article


Cerebrovasc Dis

Publication Date





608 - 613


Activities of Daily Living, Aged, Aspirin, Cognition, Diabetes Complications, Dose-Response Relationship, Drug, Double-Blind Method, Female, Humans, Hypertension, International Cooperation, Ischemic Attack, Transient, Male, Middle Aged, Naphthalenes, Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors, Propionates, Receptors, Thromboxane, Risk Factors, Secondary Prevention, Severity of Illness Index, Stroke