The effect of the magnitude of weight loss on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Koutoukidis DA., Koshiaris C., Henry JA., Noreik M., Morris E., Manoharan I., Tudor K., Bodenham E., Dunnigan A., Jebb SA., Aveyard P.
BACKGROUND: Trials show that weight loss interventions improve biomarkers of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but it is unclear if a dose-response relationship exists. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to quantify the dose-response relationship between the magnitude of weight loss and improvements in NAFLD. METHODS: Nine databases and trial registries were searched until October 2020. Single-arm, non-randomized comparative, or randomized trials of weight loss interventions (behavioral weight loss programs [BWLPs], pharmacotherapy, or bariatric surgery) in people with NAFLD were eligible for inclusion if they reported an association between changes in weight and changes in blood, radiological, or histological biomarkers of liver disease. The review followed Cochrane methods and the risk of bias was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Pooled unstandardized b coefficients were calculated using random-effect meta-analyses. RESULTS: Forty-three studies (BWMPs: 26, pharmacotherapy: 9, surgery: 8) with 2809 participants were included. The median follow-up was 6 (interquartile range: 6) months. The direction of effect was generally consistent but the estimates imprecise. Every 1 kg of weight lost was associated with a 0.83-unit (95% CI: 0.53 to 1.14, p