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BACKGROUND: People with type 1 diabetes (T1D) undertake self-management to prevent short and long-term complications. Advanced technology potentially supports such activities but requires consideration of psychological and behavioral constructs and usability issues. Economic factors and health care provider capacity influence access and uptake of advanced technology. Previous reviews have focused upon clinical outcomes or were descriptive or have synthesized studies on adults with those on children and young people where human factors are different. OBJECTIVE: This review described and examined the relationship between human factors and adherence with technology for data logging processes in adults with T1D. METHODS: A systematic literature search was undertaken by using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Quality appraisal was undertaken and data were abstracted and categorized into the themes that underpinned the human factor constructs that were examined. RESULTS: A total of 18 studies were included. A total of 6 constructs emerged from the data analysis: the relationship between adherence to data logging and measurable outcomes; satisfaction with the transition to advanced technology for self-management; use of advanced technology and time spent on diabetes-related activities; strategies to mediate the complexities of diabetes and the use of advanced technology; cognition in the wild; and meanings, views, and perspectives from the users of technology. CONCLUSIONS: Increased treatment satisfaction was found on transition from traditional to advanced technology use-insulin pump and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM); the most significant factor was when blood glucose levels were consistently <7.00 mmol/L (P ≤.01). Participants spent considerable time on their diabetes self-care. Logging of data was positively correlated with increasing age when using an app that provided meaningful feedback (regression coefficient=55.8 recordings/year; P ≤.01). There were benefits of CGM for older people in mediating complexities and fears of hypoglycemia with significant differences in well-being (P ≤.001). Qualitative studies explored the contextual use and uptake of technology. The results suggested frustrations with CGM, continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion, calibration of devices, and alarms. Furthermore implications for "body image" and the way in which "significant others" impacted on the behavior and attitude of the individual toward technology use. There were wide variations in the normal use of and interaction with technology across a continuum of sociocultural contexts, which has implications for the way in which future technologies should be designed. Quantitative studies were limited by small sample sizes, making it difficult to generalize findings to other contexts. This was further limited by a sample that was predominantly white, well-controlled, and engaged with self-care. The use of critical appraisal frameworks demonstrated where research into human factors and data logging processes of individuals could be improved. This included engaging people in the design of the technology, especially hard-to-reach or marginalized groups.

Original publication




Journal article


JMIR Hum Factors

Publication Date





Sensor-augmented pump therapy, T1D, adherence, adult, barrier, closed loop systems, compliance, continuous glucose monitoring, reminder system, self-care, self-management, technology, telehealth, telemedicine, type 1 diabetes mellitus, usability