Bone Vasculature and Bone Marrow Vascular Niches in Health and Disease.
Chen J., Hendriks M., Chatzis A., Ramasamy SK., Kusumbe AP.
Bone vasculature and bone marrow vascular niches supply oxygen, nutrients, and secrete angiocrine factors required for the survival, maintenance, and self-renewal of stem and progenitor cells. In the skeletal system, vasculature creates nurturing niches for bone and blood-forming stem cells. Blood vessels regulate hematopoiesis and drive bone formation during development, repair, and regeneration. Dysfunctional vascular niches induce skeletal aging, bone diseases, and hematological disorders. Recent cellular and molecular characterization of the bone marrow microenvironment has provided unprecedented insights into the complexity, heterogeneity, and functions of the bone vasculature and vascular niches. The bone vasculature is composed of distinct vessel subtypes that differentially regulate osteogenesis, hematopoiesis, and disease conditions in bones. Further, bone marrow vascular niches supporting stem cells are often complex microenvironments involving multiple different cell populations and vessel subtypes. This review provides an overview of the emerging vascular cell heterogeneity in bone and the new roles of the bone vasculature and associated vascular niches in health and disease. © 2020 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).