Improved Framingham Risk Scores of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in the Beijing Community: A 10-Year Prospective Study of the Effects of Multifactorial Interventions on Cardiovascular Risk Factors (The Beijing Communities Diabetes Study 22)
Zhang XL., Wan G., Yuan MX., Yang GR., Fu HJ., Zhu LX., Xie RR., Lv YJ., Zhang JD., Li YL., Dai QF., Ji Y., Holman RR., Yuan SY.
© 2020, The Author(s). Introduction: To date, research is lacking on the development of a cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk assessment tool for people with diabetes mellitus, in general, and for Chinese patients with diabetes in particular. We have explored CVD risk assessment tools for Chinese patients with diabetes. Here, we report our investigation of cardiovascular risk assessment using the improved Framingham Risk Score (I-FRS) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Beijing communities. Methods: A total of 3232 patients with T2DM attending Beijing community health centers were enrolled in this study. FRS were used to predict CVD risk in all patients at baseline using the following risk scores for glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) categories: 0 = HbA1c ≤ 7.0%; 1 = 7.0% < HbA1c ≤ 7.9%; 2 = 8.0% < HbA1c ≤ 8.9%; and 3 = HbA1c > 9.0%. The I-FRS was use to stratify all patients into low (I-FRS < 10%), medium (I-FRS 10–20%), and high (I-FRS > 20%) FRS strata. All treatments administered in the Beijing Communities Diabetes Study were in accordance with national guidelines for T2DM in China, and patients regularly attended clinical consultations with professors in endocrinology, who were experts in their respective speciality, from top tier hospitals. After 10 years, patients were followed-up to assess the long-term effects of the multifactorial interventions. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS® software (SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC, USA). Results: The receiver operating characteristic curve of the I-FRS showed significant prediction accuracy for the actual incidence of CVD events. At baseline, subjects in the high FRS stratum for diabetes were more prone to be elderly and to have a longer duration of T2DM, higher systolic blood pressure, and higher lipid profiles. Subjects in the medium and high FRS strata had a higher incidence of CVD events than those in the no-complications group (DM group with no blood pressure issues) (P < 0.001). The 10-year hazard ratios for CVD events in diabetic patients with I-FRS score > 20% was 12.5-fold higher than that of patients with I-FRS score < 10%. Multifactorial intervention significantly reduced the I-FRS of the three FRS strata in patients with T2DM. The post-intervention I-FRS for the hypertension and CVD groups of patients were significantly lower than the respective baseline I-FRS. Cox multivariate analyses revealed that patients in the medium and high FRS strata had higher incidences of endpoint events than those in the low FRS stratum. Conclusions: The I-FRS plays an important role in predicting CVD in patients with T2DM. Multifactorial interventions for CVD risk factors over 10-year follow-up lowered the estimated 10-year risk for CVD events in persons with diabetes. We suggest the use of the I-FRS score to stratify a patient’s risk of CVD when analyzing the efficacy of diabetes management. Aggressive risk reduction should be focused on those individuals with a high I-FRS score. Trial Registration: ChiCTR-TRC-13003978 and ChiCTR-OOC-15006090.