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Over the past two decades, the central role of the endothelium in the initiation, progression, and clinical sequelae of atherosclerosis has been increasingly recognized. Assessment of the pathobiology of the endothelium and its ability to act as a potential therapeutic target remains an area of active research interest. Whilst endothelial function has been shown to be a marker for risk of cardiovascular events in high-risk groups, there remains considerable debate about the most appropriate way to assess this. We discuss the different clinical methods to assess endothelial function, focusing on flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery, highlighting the importance of using a standardized methodology, as well as discussing the clinical limitations of using FMD in individuals.


Journal article


Vasc Health Risk Manag

Publication Date





647 - 652


cardiovascular risk, clinical utility, endothelial function, flow-mediated dilatation, Atherosclerosis, Brachial Artery, Cardiovascular Diseases, Endothelium, Vascular, Humans, Laser-Doppler Flowmetry, Regional Blood Flow, Risk Assessment, Vasodilation