Synergistic application of pulmonary 18F-FDG PET/HRCT and computer-based CT analysis with conventional severity measures to refine current risk stratification in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).
Fraioli F., Lyasheva M., Porter JC., Bomanji J., Shortman RI., Endozo R., Wan S., Bertoletti L., Machado M., Ganeshan B., Win T., Groves AM.
INTRODUCTION: To investigate the combined performance of quantitative CT (qCT) following a computer algorithm analysis (IMBIO) and 18F-FDG PET/CT to assess survival in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). METHODS: A total of 113 IPF patients (age 70 ± 9 years) prospectively and consecutively underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT and high-resolution CT (HRCT) at our institution. During a mean follow-up of 29.6 ± 26 months, 44 (48%) patients died. As part of the qCT analysis, pattern evaluation of HRCT (using IMBIO software) included the total extent (percentage) of the following features: normal-appearing lung, hyperlucent lung, parenchymal damage (comprising ground-glass opacification, reticular pattern and honeycombing), and the pulmonary vessels. The maximum (SUVmax) and minimum (SUVmin) standardized uptake value (SUV) for 18F-FDG uptake in the lungs, and the target-to-background (SUVmax/SUVmin) ratio (TBR) were quantified using routine region-of-interest (ROI) analysis. Pulmonary functional tests (PFTs) were acquired within 14 days of the PET/CT/HRCT scan. Kaplan-Meier (KM) survival analysis was used to identify associations with mortality. RESULTS: Data from 91 patients were available for comparative analysis. The average ± SD GAP [gender, age, physiology] score was 4.2 ± 1.7 (range 0-8). The average ± SD SUVmax, SUVmin, and TBR were 3.4 ± 1.4, 0.7 ± 0.2, and 5.6 ± 2.8, respectively. In all patients, qCT analysis demonstrated a predominantly reticular lung pattern (14.9 ± 12.4%). KM analysis showed that TBR (p = 0.018) and parenchymal damage assessed by qCT (p = 0.0002) were the best predictors of survival. Adding TBR and qCT to the GAP score significantly increased the ability to differentiate between high and low risk (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: 18F-FDG PET and qCT are independent and synergistic in predicting mortality in patients with IPF.