Risk calculators based on equations from the Framingham Heart Study tend to underestimate risks for people with diabetes as this study included relatively few diabetic subjects. The UKPDS Risk Engine is a type 2 diabetes specific risk calculator based on 53,000 patients years of data from the UK Prospective Diabetes Study, which also provides an approximate 'margin of error' for each estimate.
The UKPDS Risk Engine provides risk estimates and 95% confidence intervals, in individuals with type 2 diabetes not known to have heart disease, for:
- non-fatal and fatal coronary heart disease
- fatal coronary heart disease
- non-fatal and fatal stroke
- fatal stroke
These can be calculated for any given duration of type 2 diabetes based on current age, sex, ethnicity, smoking status, presence or absence of atrial fibrillation and levels of HbA1c, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol. Full details of the equations used have been published.